The theme of Exploitation and Corruption in Chris Egbarevba’s Canopy of Thunder and Festus Iyayi’s Violence

THE THEME OF EXPLOITATION AND CORRUPTION IN CHRIS EGBAREVBA’S CANOPY OF THUNDER AND FESTUS IYAYI’S VIOLENCE

Abstract

Literature is an imaginative work of art conveyed through the medium of language. It is a medium of reflecting the contemporary issues of the society be it class struggle, leadership problem, matters of security or issues on national development. In fact, literature serves as a mirror of society or a channel through which the social, political, cultural and economic issues that ravage a given society are explored. This means that there are correlation between art and life; hence, literature deals with people and their experiences in a given milieu. This paper, therefore, concerns itself with the contributions of literary artists to the lives and experiences of people in the Nigeria society, especially on matters of national security and development. This is because the literary artists are seen as people who are committed by using their works to advocate for an egalitarian society, especially satirise the evils of corruption and exploitation; and push the proletariats into a struggle towards liberation from all the forces that undermine their experiences. The paper will make specific emphasis on Festus Iyayi’s Violence and Chris Eghavreba’s canopy of thunder a Marxist oriented novel that advocate forces against all the forms of exploitation and corruption in our society.

The theme of Exploitation and Corruption in Chris Egbarevba’s Canopy of Thunder and Festus Iyayi’s Violence

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

Literature is a literary creation that mirrors the life experiences of people in the society. Enright says literature is a work of art in memoirs of a mendicant professor “offers a vast reservoir of human experience and judgement of experience, a development of imagination and entry into human situation. To him one of the major functions of literature is the portrayal and examination of man as he goes through both pleasant and unpleasant experiences in his new perspective in African education.

Fafunwa writes:  Literature after all is life, it deals with men in every conceivable relation with others, his joys and woes, his tragedies and comedies, his fears and hopes. Thus, literature is seen as a distillation of human experiences which permetes thoughts and emotions. As the imitation of life, it is educative and gives us insight into the nature of reality.

To Danzinger and Johnson in an introduction to literature says: “It aims at giving automatic picture of ordinary life, usually by showing typical people of the middle and lower classes engaged in ordinary pursuits and recording their activities in great and concrete details. (122)

Hence, in novels that deals with realistic aspects of life, great emphasis is given to seemingly inconsequential people, who are portrayed in a rigorously unidealised way, and to such things as sight and sounds of common life.

According to Wathiongo in Home coming, literature does not grow or develop in a vacuum. It is given impetus, shape, direction and even area of concern by social, political and economic forces in a particular society.

Festus Iyayi’s Violence and Egharevba’s Canopy of Thunder are novelist slum and sophisticated in their works. Festus Iyayi’s Violence and Chris Egharevba’s Canopy of Thunder: A propaganda against exploitation, inequality, unpatriotism and corruption, we are constant made aware of the political, social and economic forces which determines individual life, men and women relationship, love and family ties.

The theme of Exploitation and Corruption in Chris Egbarevba’s Canopy of Thunder and Festus Iyayi’s Violence

The novelist high lights the evils of corruption, exploitation, avarice, nepotism, graft, inefficiency, general nonchalance and dereliction of duties by government officials, basic indiscipline, class consciousness and many other ills, and how they undermined the security and development of the nation.

A consistent lampooning of the bourgeoisie class and crass materialism are pellucidly exemplified in the novels under study, hence, the major conflict in the novels is human dignity versus money, which is the case in all class societies. Iyayi’s and Egharevba’s fictional world shows two worlds overlap to form one world.

In this study, we set out to explore the writes preoccupation of events in contemporary Nigeria. So far, we can say that a critical appraisal of this novels shows writers whose sensibility have been awakened by inequalities and injustice in the society. Their novels are grim expression of what is called the “appatting condition” in the society.

That is, generally in their novel, Iyayi’s and Egharevba’s present the society, and the evil prevalent in it. The novels also present man’s inhumanity to his fellow man and other forms of barbarism and brutality infused into society through man’s folly and irrationality, and these breed violence which undermines security and national development.

Satire and Social Mediation in Wole Soyinka’s the Trials of Brother Jero and the Road

SATIRE AND SOCIAL MEDIATION IN WOLE SOYINKA’S THE TRIALS OF BROTHER JERO AND THE ROAD

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

Literature is the mirror of life. It seeks to discuss, expose, and propose solutions to the daily problems of the society, be it social, political, economic, moral or otherwise. Therefore, literature reflects life and it is inseparable to the society.

Satire is a kind of literature and sometimes graphic and performing arts, where vices, follies abuses and falsities are bound to ridicule ideally with the intension of humiliating individuals and society itself, even in improvement, although satire is usually funny. The more important purpose is often social corrective or constructive criticism using the mind as a weapon.

Satire and social mediation is now found in many form of artistic expression, including literature, plays commentary and media. The word satire comes from a Latin word satire and from the following sentence Lanxsatura.

Saturation means “complete” but the juxtaposition with Lanx moved the meaning of variety or “pastiche” meaning a combination of different kinds.  The satirist uses a range of stylistic methods that can include irony, mockery and exaggeration and so on to attack madness.

Satire and social mediation is about creating and restoring the social fabric by preventing or resolving conflict through the intervention of a neutral and third party who guarantee communication between partners. Through the use of satire and social mediation, citizens assume the responsibility of resolving the conflicts.

Satire and Social Mediation in Wole Soyinka’s the Trials of Brother Jero and the Road

The essence of satire is therefore to ridicule the ills of an individual or institution with the aim of correcting and transforming the society. Satire helps to mould individuals’ character and it also exposes the point of weakness of any society. The concept of satire is invented from the act of mockery or ridicules, to correct the ills of the society. It is also a piece of writing that uses devices such as irony.

A text or performance that uses irony or root to expose or attack human vices, foolishness or stupidity. To buttress this, George Ostler in Oxford dictionary, opines that satire is a composition which vice or follies is tended up to ridicule.

Certainly, satire is a powerful art form which has the ability to point out the deficiencies in certain human behaviours and social issues which result from them in such a way that they become absurd, even hilarious, which is therefore entertaining and reaches a wide audience. In addition, atire also has the ability to protect it creator from capability for criticism because it is implied rather than overtly stated in this way, it becomes a powerful fool dissenters in difficult or oppressive political and social periods.

Satire and Social Mediation in Wole Soyinka’s the Trials of Brother Jero and the Road

1.2       Statement of the Problems

Satire is a literary technique which principally ridicules its subject which includes individuals, organization or states often as an intended means of provoking or preventing changes. Satire can be said to be both a specific literary genre, and a literary manner. As a literary genre, it is said to have references to a poetic form which was originated in the 2nd Century B.C. This is to say that satire was initially often Quintilian that it required a general application to other forms of literary expression and verbal expressions.

As a literary manner satire is concerned with ridiculing human and institutional follies with the intention of correcting them. Therefore, satire is employed to mock or censor the action of man or his belief.

On the other hand, social mediation is an expression of empowering the individual components of a good society, empowering them to take responsibility for maintaining social peace and preventing crime. The use of social mediation by writers is to correct and restore order in the society which is so much engulfed in a mirage of socio-political, cultural and economic problems.

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to critically examine satire and social mediation in Wole Soyinka’s the Trails of Brother Jero and the Road. The study will also examine the nature of satire and social mediation.

Ecological Consequences of Urbanization and Industrialization

ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF URBANIZATION AND INDUSTRIALIZATION

Introduction

The process of urbanization and industrialization is a large driving force of economic growth. There is a worldwide rapid spread of the process imposing additional infrastructure and production which increase energy consumption. The resulting carbon dioxide emissions (henceforth, CO2) cause a global warming and consequently attract widespread concerns from the international community in promoting sustainable development and environment protection, especially in terms of reduction of CO2 emissions. CO2 remains the major anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) which accounts for 76% of total emissions in 2010. Total annual anthropogenic GHG emissions have increased by about 10 gigatonnes of CO2-equivalent between 2000 and 2010. This increase mainly came from energy (47%), industry (30%), transport (11%) and the building sector (3%). Economic and population growth is the most important drivers of increases in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion (IPCC (2014). Globally, 54% of the world’s population resides in urban areas in 2014 and urban population is projected to reach 66% by 2050 (United Nations, 2014). However, levels of urbanization and industrialization vary greatly across regions1. CO2 emissions in the world have increased from 4.6 to 4.9 metric tons per capita over the period 2006-2011, with income-level heterogeneity: 11.1for high-income countries; 3.4 for middle-income and 0.3 for low-income (World Development Indicators, 2015). This trend will intensify over the next decades as a consequence of high urbanization growth in all regions, especially in Africa and Asia. The rapid development of urbanization expansion and heavy burden of human activities have impaired ecosystem functions in coastal areas (Lin, Xue, Shi, and Gao (2003). From the view of landscape ecology, urbanization is the process in which land use/cover landscape changes from natural landscape which is mainly made of water, soil, and vegetation to manmade landscape which is mainly composed of cement, asphalt, chemical materials, and metal (Cohen, 2006). Meanwhile, the change of land use/cover landscape pattern could be interpreted as the changes of patch shape, area, quality, and spatial combination. Rapid urbanization has been companied by more drastic changes of land use types, disorderly landscape layout, and fragile ecological environment. (Pigeon, Lemonsu, Long, Barrié, Masson, and Durand, 2006).

THE CONCEPT OF URBANIZATION

Urbanization, simply defined as the shift from a rural to an urban society, is an essential corollary of industrialization that goes hand in hand with the role of human settlements as engines of growth in the economy and as promoters of scientific, socio-cultural and technological development. Urbanization is the outcome of the social, economic and political development. It is a factor of development associated with modernization and is a means of and consequences of modernization and has a positive and accelerating effect on development.

Rapid urbanization finds expression principally in outward expansion of the built-up area, converting prime agricultural land into residential and industrial uses. It also leads to the construction of high-rise buildings and vertical commercial development in specific zones.

Urbanization is a process whereby populations move from rural to urban area, enabling cities and towns to grow. It can also be termed as the progressive increase of the number of people living in towns and cities. It is highly influenced by the notion that cities and towns have achieved better economic, political, and social mileages compared to the rural areas.

Accordingly, urbanization is very common in developing and developed worlds as more and more people have the tendency of moving closer to towns and cities to acquire “privileged” social and economic services as well as benefits. These include social and economic advantages such as better education, health care, sanitation, housing, business opportunities, and transportation.

Although urbanization is growing throughout the world, the growth of cities is more rapid in the developing countries especially Africa where annual growth rate is 1.6% compared to 0.8% in the developed countries. In 1950, Africa was the least urbanized continent with only 14.5% of the population in urban areas, but by 1988, about 35% of Africa’s population of 749 million people was urban. UN projections indicate that the urban population will increase to 914 million by 2025 or 4 times the 1990 levels.

In Africa, urbanization results from large concentrations of population in a few large cities and the factors that account for this phenomenon include:

•           Industrialization and labour specialization

•           Higher productivity in agriculture due to specialization and introduction of new technologies

•           Foreign penetration and power interests

•           High expectations and hopes of groups and individuals

Rapid urbanization finds expression principally in outward expansion of the built-up area, converting prime agricultural land into residential and industrial uses. It also leads to the construction of high-rise buildings and vertical commercial development in specific zones

CONCEPT OF INDUSTRIALIZATION

Industrialization is the process by which an economy is transformed from primarily agricultural to one based on the manufacturing of goods. Individual manual labor is often replaced by mechanized mass production, and craftsmen are replaced by assembly lines. Characteristics of industrialization include economic growth, more efficient division of labor, and the use of technological innovation to solve problems as opposed to dependency on conditions outside human control.

  • Industrialization is a transformation away from an agricultural- or resource-based economy, toward an economy based on mass manufacturing.
  • Industrialization is usually associated with increases in total income and living standards in a society.
  • Early industrialization occurred in Europe and North America during the 18th and 19th centuries, and later in other parts of the world.
  • Numerous strategies for industrialization have been pursued in different countries over time, with varying levels of success.

Industrialization is the process of applying mechanical, chemical, and electrical sciences to reorganize production with inanimate sources of energy. A technological criterion of industrialization by no means entails technological determinism. On the contrary, comparative studies of industrialization have served as a key field for social investigators to highlight the influence of culture, political contingency, and the timing of local development in relation to world history. Cross-national comparisons of industrialization have undermined unilinear models that had predicted that the international sharing of technology would lead to convergence in the social institutions of manufacture.

Processes of industrialization across capitalist societies as well as across state-dominated societies with central planning, such as the former Soviet Union, have shared essential similarities. Initially industrialization is marked by massive transfers of labor out of agriculture and into factories that have concentrations of capital equipment. Increases in the productivity of the labor devoted to manufacture come to balance increases in demand for goods, however, and employment in the service sector increases more rapidly than in manufacture after initial industrialization. In the leading industrial societies of Europe, Asia, and North America, employment growth has increasingly concentrated in services, expert professions, and finance. Even in industrialized countries that are net exporters of manufactures, such as Germany, the absolute number of workers in manufacturing has usually declined since the 1970s. Indeed, some national economies, including that of the UK, have become net importers of manufactured goods and net exporters of design know-how and of financial services that put technology to work elsewhere.

Ecological Consequences of Urbanization and Industrialization

There are four primary impact points when it comes to industrialization — air, water, soil and habitat.

The biggest problem is air pollution, caused by the smoke and emissions generated by burning fossil fuels. The United State’s EPA regulates more than 80 different toxins that can be found in industrial pollution, from asbestos and dioxin to lead and chromium. In spite of these regulations, industries are among the worst generators of air pollution in the world.

Water pollution is also a problem in these areas, specifically in regions where factories are built next to natural water sources. These toxins can come in a variety of forms — solid, liquid or gaseous — and they can all end up contaminating the local water supplies. Even landfills and other waste disposal areas can leach toxins into the local water supply, leading to water pollution as in the case of River Nile.

Soil contamination is another problem that goes hand in hand with industrialization. Lead is the most common form of soil contamination, but other heavy metals and toxic chemicals can also leach into the soil and, in turn, contaminate any crops that grow there.

Finally, industrialization has led to dramatic habitat destruction. Forests are cut down for their lumber, and ecosystems are destroyed to create roads, strip mines and gravel pits. Destroying these habitats upsets local ecosystems and leads to plant and animal extinction if the species are unable to relocate or adapt to their new surroundings.

The Solution

Now that we’ve realized what an impact the industrial revolution has had and is still having on the environment, what can we do to fix it? There are two possible approaches that both factories and legislators can take to help reduce the impact of industrial pollution.

First, industries can reduce their reliance on a product that is causing pollution. One good example is removing lead from gasoline in the 1970s. We’ve lowered our dependence on lead, which reduced the amount of this heavy metal being leached into the surrounding environment.

The other option is to treat industrial waste to remove toxic components so that the rest of the waste can be disposed of safely. It isn’t always easy, and it does require that each factory implements the proper procedures to purify or cleanse their waste byproducts. However, it can help reduce the soil, air and water pollution being produced by these facilities, and also help in conservation of natural resources. Companies like https://allgreenrecycling.com/e-waste-recycling/ can help in managing e-waste in a sustainable manner.

The industrial revolution may have changed the way that we look at the world, but it also changed the impact we had on this planet that we call home. Now that we’ve realized the problem, it’s up to us to fix it so that we can continue to grow and change without destroying our home in the name of progress.

URBANIZATION AND ITS IMPACTS ON ECOSYSTEM

Urbanization is also defined by the United Nations as movement of people from rural to urban areas with population growth equating to urban migration.

Urbanization is closely linked to modernization, industrialization, globalization.
The main impact of this is habitat loss, biodiversity destruction ultimately leading to ecosystem imbalance or its destruction. .

Dense human populations due to urbanization that allow little room for natural habitat and which cause imbalance in our ecosystem so, impacts of urbanization on ecosystem is of great importance.

MAIN IMPACTS

Deforestation

Ecological habitat loss

Pollution

Global Warming

Imbalance in Food chain

Increase in Endangered Species.

POLLUTION

Pollution is one of the main causes of ecosystem destruction. Pollution can deplete resources and drive away local animal populations. Significant sources of pollution include trash, carbon emissions, oil spills and pesticides.

Pollution disrupts the normal ecosystem functioning resulting malfunctioning of the ecosystem.

HABITAT LOSS

When a habitat is destroyed, the plants, animals, and other organisms that occupied the habitat have a reduced carrying capacity so that populations decline and extinction becomes more likely. Perhaps the greatest threat to organisms and biodiversity is the process of habitat loss.

Encroachment to natural habitat has resulted in the loss of rich biological diversity.

A survey of tiger’s in the national parks have shown that depletion up to 50 percent

As a result of these human activities biodiversity profile of world is facing a serious threat of depletion.

IMPACTS ON BIODIVERSITY

As a result of Habitat loss and increasing urbanized area many organisms are facing threat of EXTICTION.

Disappearance of SPARROWS in Bangalore is due to habitat loss and pollution which are resultant of urbanization.

One of the serious cause for the SNAKE’S decreasing population is due to urbanization which deteriously affects the ecosystem’s food chain.

Mining activities-The process of excavation of natural mineral resources from the deeper sediments of soil is known as MINING.

Mining activities have resulted in overexploitation of some of non-renewable resources.

It is observed that the decrease in the Eagle’s population in these days is because of the antibiotics present in the cattle’s meat which is eagle’s source of food-ANTHROPOCENTRIC CAUSE.

Climate change continues to play a significant role in the destruction of the ecosystem. Global warming has led to increased temperatures, sea levels and ocean acidity that disrupt an ecosystem’s natural balance.

Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earth’s near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation.

The cities should be planned

Government should provide basic necessities like employment and basic needs in order to minimize the migrating population to the Urban areas.

The administration should become strong in implementing laws in favor to Ecosystem’s balance and its good health.

Each and every person should become ENVIRONMENT LITERATE.

Urban effects on the environment

Humans are the driving force behind urban ecology and influence the environment in a variety of ways, such as modifying land surfaces and waterways, introducing foreign species, and altering biogeochemical cycles. Some of these effects are more apparent, such as the reversal of the Chicago River to accommodate the growing pollution levels and trade on the river. Other effects can be more gradual such as the change in global climate due to urbanization.

Modification of land and waterways

Humans place high demand on land not only to build urban centers, but also to build surrounding suburban areas for housing. Land is also allocated for agriculture to sustain the growing population of the city. Expanding cities and suburban areas necessitate corresponding deforestation to meet the land-use and resource requirements of urbanization. Key examples of this are Deforestation in the United States and Brazil

Along with manipulation of land to suit human needs, natural water resources such as rivers and streams are also modified in urban establishments. Modification can come in the form of dams, artificial canals, and even the reversal of rivers. Reversing the flow of the Chicago River is a major example of urban environmental modification. Urban areas in natural desert settings often bring in water from far areas to maintain the human population and will likely have effects on the local desert climate. Modification of aquatic systems in urban areas also results in decreased stream diversity and increased pollution.

Trade, shipping, and spread of invasive species

Both local shipping and long-distance trade are required to meet the resource demands important in maintaining urban areas. Carbon dioxide emissions from the transport of goods also contribute to accumulating greenhouse gases and nutrient deposits in the soil and air of urban environments. In addition, shipping facilitates the unintentional spread of living organisms, and introduces them to environments that they would not naturally inhabit. Introduced or alien species are populations of organisms living in a range in which they did not naturally evolve due to intentional or inadvertent human activity. Increased transportation between urban centers furthers the incidental movement of animal and plant species. Alien species often have no natural predators and pose a substantial threat to the dynamics of existing ecological populations in the new environment where they are introduced. Such invasive species are numerous and include house sparrows, ring-necked pheasants, European starlings, brown rats, Asian carp, American bullfrogs, emerald ash borer, kudzu vines, and zebra mussels among numerous others, most notably domesticated animals.

Human effects on biogeochemical pathways

Urbanization results in a large demand for chemical use by industry, construction, agriculture, and energy providing services. Such demands have a substantial impact on biogeochemical cycles, resulting in phenomena such as acid rain, eutrophication, and global warming. Furthermore, natural biogeochemical cycles in the urban environment can be impeded due to impermeable surfaces that prevent nutrients from returning to the soil, water, and atmosphere.

Demand for fertilizers to meet agricultural needs exerted by expanding urban centers can alter chemical composition of soil. Such effects often result in abnormally high concentrations of compounds including sulfur, phosphorus, nitrogen, and heavy metals. In addition, nitrogen and phosphorus used in fertilizers have caused severe problems in the form of agricultural runoff, which alters the concentration of these compounds in local rivers and streams, often resulting in adverse effects on native species. A well-known effect of agricultural runoff is the phenomenon of eutrophication. When the fertilizer chemicals from agricultural runoff reach the ocean, an algal bloom results, then rapidly dies off. The dead algae biomass is decomposed by bacteria that also consume large quantities of oxygen, which they obtain from the water, creating a “dead zone” without oxygen for fish or other organisms. A classic example is the dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico due to agricultural runoff into the Mississippi River.

Just as pollutants and alterations in the biogeochemical cycle alter river and ocean ecosystems, they exert likewise effects in the air. Smog stems from the accumulation of chemicals and pollution and often manifests in urban settings, which has a great impact on local plants and animals. Because urban centers are often considered point sources for pollution, unsurprisingly local plants have adapted to withstand such conditions.

Urban effects on climate

Urban environments and outlying areas have been found to exhibit unique local temperatures, precipitation, and other characteristic activity due to a variety of factors such as pollution and altered geochemical cycles. Some examples of the urban effects on climate are urban heat island, oasis effect, greenhouse gases, and acid rain. This further stirs the debate as to whether urban areas should be considered a unique biome. Despite common trends among all urban centers, the surrounding local environment heavily influences much of the climate. One such example of regional differences can be seen through the urban heat island and oasis effect.

MAJOR CAUSES OF URBANIZATION

The proportion of the world’s population living in urban areas, which was less than 5 percent in 1800, increased to 47 percent by 2000 and is expected to reach 65 percent by 2030, according to a 2000 United Nations report. Urbanization is the shift of populace from a rural to an urban society. In developing countries, the reasons for people leaving rural areas and moving to urban areas varies from country to country, but in many cases it is creating slums of fringe dwellers unable to find suitable employment. Ecological Consequences of Urbanization and Industrialization

Modernization

There’s something inherently romantic about moving to the city. Cities are more modern thhttp://correctschoolnews.com.ngan rural environments, and people are attracted to the fashion, food, and ideas flowing in the city.

People often move to cities for a fresh start. They want to learn more about culture and experience the hustle and bustle of daily city life. Some people dream of moving to the “big city” for most of their lives. They might be disappointed when they get there, but a lot of cities have a modern, romantic draw to them. Ecological Consequences of Urbanization and Industrialization

Industrialization

Industrialization is a trend representing a shift from the old agricultural economics to novel non-agricultural economy, which creates a modernized society. Through industrial revolution, more people have been attracted to move from rural to urban areas on the account of improved employment opportunities. Industrialization has increased employment opportunities by giving people the chance to work in modern sectors in job categories that aids to stir economic developments. Ecological Consequences of Urbanization and Industrialization

Commercialization

Commerce and trade play a major role in urbanization. The distribution of goods and services and commercial transactions in the modern era has developed modern marketing institutions and exchange methods that have tremendously given rise to the growth of towns and cities. Commercialization and trade comes with the general perception that the towns and cities offer better commercial opportunities and returns compared to the rural areas. Ecological Consequences of Urbanization and Industrialization

Political Causes

During times of political unrest, families are forced to leave their rural farming villages, and they migrate to the urban areas in search of shelter, food and employment. When large numbers of people are driven from their rural villages, especially in war-ravaged countries, the cities become saturated, and slums start to grow on the outskirts of the cities. Ecological Consequences of Urbanization and Industrialization

Economic Causes

Poverty in rural areas, due to large companies creating commercial farms and small farmers finding it harder and harder to make a living, forces people to move to the urban areas in search of better employment opportunities. The rise of industry in developing countries has provided more job opportunities in urban areas, and cities have increased significantly in size due to this. Ecological Consequences of Urbanization and Industrialization

Education

Opportunities for education at universities and technical colleges draw young people to the urban centers, where they hope to provide better prospects for the future for themselves and their families. Urban centers in developing countries have become hubs of education and training, as they are also in developed countries. Ecological Consequences of Urbanization and Industrialization

Natural Population Increase

There has been a natural increase of population in many developing countries due to improved medical care, immunization programs, better sanitation and more widespread education. Death rates have decreased, and there are fewer infant deaths, resulting in population growth. As populations grow so does the urban sprawl. As the cities become overcrowded with not enough employment to go around, more and more people live in substandard housing. Ecological Consequences of Urbanization and Industrialization

Environmental Degradation

When the natural habitat of farming families is destroyed due to deforestation, mining or industrial expansion, they are forced to find somewhere else to live. Often small amounts of compensation from logging and mining companies provide the funds for families to move to urban areas, but there is no guarantee of work in the cities, and many families move there and are forced into poverty because they cannot find enough work. Ecological Consequences of Urbanization and Industrialization

Social Causes

Many young people migrate to urban centers in search of lifestyle changes and with the desire to become associated with the club scenes in large cities. Such scenes provide employment opportunities, but they sadly also attract gambling and crime syndicates to develop.

How the Objectives of teacher education can be achieve

HOW THE OBJECTIVES OF TEACHER EDUCATION CAN BE ACHIEVE

Rethink the content of teacher education to attain teacher quality: The way in which practicing teachers learn depends on many factors – culture and tradition, existing institutions, systemic characteristics, etc. Specific designs of teacher education must be context specific, and modelled in function of specific needs (education aims, processes that are already in-place, developing these skills and to understand the in depth context of the schools in which they teach. Teacher education programmes should be designed as an incentive to bring the right people into teaching and to make it adequate to the country‘s specific needs, depending on the quality and the quantity of future teachers that it is considered suitable.

Increase the coherence between the education received by teachers and what actually happens in the classrooms:The role of practical field-experience in teacher education has to be revaluated: to include practicum during initial teacher education allows to familiarize aspirant teachers to classrooms, to prevent “reality-shocks” at the beginning of their teaching career, to link pedagogical theory with practical problems and to construct a sound professional identity. The modalities (sole observation, tutoring and assistance, full responsibility of a class, small support tasks) can be adapted to the particular context of each country. Research shows that soon-to-be-teachers that have had an extensive training in schools perform better as teachers.

Systematically put into place teacher quality mechanism:Systematic certification for teachers and accreditation for teacher education providers have to be put into place. Educational authorities can establish professional standards, independently to what is taught in the teacher education programmes. This is also a way to influence on these programmes, and make their outcome closer to what the educational system needs, in terms of skills and competences. To raise the requirements to certify teachers allows improving teacher quality. How the Objectives of teacher education can be achieve. The establishment of standards to certify teachers, and/or to accreditation teacher education providers can allow to “even out” teacher education, to bring clearness and predictability into the system.

Health Counseling in Adolescents

HEALTH COUNSELING IN ADOLESCENTS

Introduction

There are a number of different forms of counselling, some of which are used in specific circumstances. In all forms of counselling the relationship between counsellor and client is of great importance. Counsellors sometimes work in general practices to treat patients with mental health problems in primary care.

Although the term counselling implies the giving of advice and guidance, in the past much of the counselling available used a client-centred nondirective approach. In this approach the counsellor is passive and tends to rephrase and reflect what the client says. Counselling may be concerned with addressing and resolving specific problems, making decisions, coping with crises, working through conflict, or improving relationships with others. The work of most counsellors in primary care is generalist and is not necessarily linked to any diagnostic categories. In generic counselling, a broad range of techniques is used to help the patient. In specific counselling, a specific model such as psychodynamic counselling or bereavement counselling is used.

MEANING OF HEALTH COUNSELING IN ADOLESCENTS

Health Counselling is a talking treatment that involves a trained therapist listening to you and helping you find ways to deal with emotional issues. Sometimes the term “health counselling” is used to refer to talking therapies in general, but counselling is also a type of treatment in its own right.

Health counselling can help the client cope with:

  • a mental health condition, such as depression or anxiety
  • being diagnosed with or living with a health condition
  • dealing with a difficult life event, such as losing someone you love, a relationship breakdown, financial burden, or work-related stress
  • identifying triggers that cause you to follow negative patterns
  • difficult emotions – for example, low self-esteem caused by your health condition or feeling angry about your situation.  

What is Health?

Health is the level of functional and/or metabolic efficiency of an organism at both the micro (cellular) and macro (social) level. In the medical field, health is commonly defined as an organism’s ability to efficiently respond to challenges (stressors) and effectively restore and sustain a “state of balance,” known as homeostasis.

Another widely accepted definition of health is that of the World Health Organization “WHO”. It states that “health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. In more recent years, this statement has been modified to include the ability to lead a “socially and economically productive life.” The WHO definition is not without criticism, as some argue that health cannot be defined as a state at all, but must be seen as a process of continuous adjustment to the changing demands of living and of the changing meanings we give to life.

Definition of counselling

Counseling is an interactional process meant to enhance redefinition of stand for positive adjustment on particular issues of life.

Counselling refers to helping process that uses the safety of a special relationship between the counsellor and the counselee-who together explore the thoughts, feelings and counsellor attitudes of the counselee with the objective of tapping the resources within the counselee to effect healing and change.

It is necessary to assist the student’s teachers to be disciplined and be able to deal with challenges and realities they face in their ever changing environment, understand themselves, their academic social and physical environment, realize their potentials, as well as identify opportunities in a world where chances for further training, employment and advancement continue to dwindle. Learners are counselled to alter any maladjusted behaviour. Since most citizens are involved in education process directly or indirectly, the impact of guidance and counselling is real to them.

TYPES OF HEALTH COUNSELING IN ADOLESCENTS

Problem-solving counselling

  • This is a structured and systematic approach to resolving problems that are linked to stressful circumstances.
  • It is particularly suitable for patients whose life problems are adversely affecting or maintaining a disorder.
  • It involves the patient identifying and listing problems and then considering what practical ways exist to solve or alleviate the problem. These solutions are tried and then reviewed.
  • This method has been shown to be useful in treating mild mood disorders.

Interpersonal counselling

  • This is similar to problem-solving approaches but the focus is on the current state of interpersonal relationships in the home, work and elsewhere.
  • Problems in relationships can be viewed under the headings of loss, interpersonal disputes, role transitions and interpersonal deficits.
  • A problem-solving approach is adopted to encourage the patient to try out alternative ways of coping.
  • This has been effectively used for patients with minor mood disorders.

Psychodynamic counselling

  • In this technique there is more emphasis on past experience and unconscious processes as the mainspring of current behaviour.
  • The patient’s emotional reactions to the counsellor and situation are an indicator of the nature of problems in other relationships.
  • This approach has not been as thoroughly evaluated as those above.

IMPORTANCE OF HEALTH COUNSELING IN ADOLESCENTS

Health Counselling has been used in the following situations:

  • Counselling to relieve acute distress:
    • In this situation there is emphasis on emotional release and ways of coping with the immediate problem.
    • Where the method is nondirective, unstructured and involves the recall of distressing events, it may be inappropriate for those surviving traumatic experience and may lead to worse outcomes than where the patient receives no counselling.
    • Cognitive methods may be of some help but timing is important.
  • Counselling for late effects of trauma, including post-traumatic stress disorder:
    • As above, it is inappropriate to use nondirective and unstructured approaches since they may result in recreating the emotionality of the experience without offering ways to deal with it.
    • Cognitive and psychodynamic approaches may be more useful.
  • Counselling for relationship problems:
    • It may be helpful for a counsellor to encourage couples to talk constructively about their relationship so that they come to appreciate their thoughts and feelings for each other.
  • Risk counselling:
    • It may be helpful for those who may be facing the risk of developing an hereditary disease or acquiring a sexually transmitted disease to discuss with a counsellor the nature of the risks and the possible responses to the various outcomes.
  • Bereavement counselling:
    • Counselling in this situation focuses on giving information about the normal stages of grieving, working through the normal stages of grief and giving advice on coping without the deceased.
  • Mild-to-moderate depression:
    • The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) questions the efficacy of this compared with other therapies and has downgraded it to second-line treatment  in its latest guidance.
  • Generalised anxiety and panic disorder.
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder.
  • Psychosomatic conditions – chronic pain, chronic fatigue, and gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel.Also, some gynaecological syndromes such as premenstrual syndrome and chronic pelvic pain.
  • Health promotion:
    • Counselling can also play an important role in health promotion for some patients, including smoking cessation.
  • Chronic or terminal disease:
    • Counselling may help some patients to come to terms with chronic or terminal disease. One study advocated the use of group psychotreatment  for this indication.

TECHNIQUES USE IN HEALTH COUNSELING IN ADOLESCENTS

Counsellors focus on client choices in their life circumstances as a basis for their work. Counselling can involve a variety of different methods and techniques, including psychodynamic counselling and cognitive behavioural counselling. However, most are influenced by humanistic, process-experiential and psychodynamic principles. Examples of treatment approaches include:

  • Nondirective counselling:
    • Encourages the patient to share his or her problems with the counsellor.
    • Through listening, the counsellor affirms the patient’s worth and allows him or her to take the time to express his or her thoughts.
  • Problem-solving treatment :
    • Systematically teaches generic skills in active problem-solving, helping individuals to clarify and formulate their life difficulties and apply principles of problem-solving to reduce stress and enhance self-efficacy.
  • Cognitive techniques (such as challenging negative automatic thoughts) and behavioural techniques (such as activity scheduling and behavioural experiments):
    • Are used to relieve symptoms by changing maladaptive thoughts and beliefs.
  • Behavioural treatment :
    • Seeks to solve problems and relieve symptoms by changing behaviour and the environmental factors which control behaviour.
    • Graded exposure to feared situations is one of the most common behavioural treatment methods and is used in a range of anxiety disorders.
  • Cognitive behavioural treatment :
    • Is a combination of the two techniques of cognitive and behavioural treatment .
    • It looks at how a person’s self-perception can influence his or her behaviour.
    • It addresses some of the underlying issues and how these can give rise to destructive or damaging behaviour.
    • Can be useful in treating depression, anxiety and substance abuse. One study found it was beneficial in the management of elderly patients with depressive disorder.
    • Access has always been the issue in primary care but one study found that online real time treatment  delivered by a counsellor over the internet was effective.
    • NICE has reviewed the use of and access to cognitive behavioural treatment  in general practice and has recommended:[7]
      • Beating the Blues – an internet-based cognitive behavioural treatment  programme for the treatment of mild-to-moderate depression.
      • FearFighter – a similar programme available for the treatment of panic and phobic anxiety.
  • Interpersonal treatment :
    • Structured, supportive treatment linking recent interpersonal events to mood or other problems, paying systematic attention to current personal relationships, life transitions, role conflicts and losses.
  • Psychodynamic counselling:
    • Based on the view that past and unresolved conflicts and events result in current emotional distress, a variety of methods is used to help the client make sense of repressed or forgotten experiences, allowing the client to move forward and resolve the conflict or troubling behaviour.

CONCLUSION

Health counselling involves talking with an impartial listener in a confidential, non-judgmental, supportive and respectful environment. The counsellor will encourage you work through issues with increased awareness and understanding. It can help you develop greater self-acceptance, personal insight, and make positive life changes and decisions. Health counselling helps in a range of areas including:

  • New or recent HIV diagnosis or other health issues
  • Living with HIV
  • HIV and relationships
  • HIV positive friends, family members or partners
  • Anxiety and depression
  • Relationship issues
  • Gender identity
  • Self-esteem
  • Grief and loss
  • Emotional, physical or sexual abuse
  • Safer sex

REFERENCES

Duroyaiye,  M.O.  (1999). Cross-cultural  perspectives  on  guidance  and  counselling Lagos:Nelson  Federal  Ministry  of  Education  (2004)  National  policy  on Education, Lagos.

Egbo (2013). Development of Guidance and counselling,Enugu; Agada Publishers.

Federal Ministry of Education (2004); National Policy on Education, Lagos. Health Counseling in Adolescents

Heart, P. W. (2011). The counsellors strength. Port-Harcourt: Double Diamond Publications.

The Use Of Satire For Change In Wole Soyinka’s The Lion And The Jewel And Ola Rotimi’s Our Husband Has Gone Mad Again

THE USE OF SATIRE FOR CHANGE IN WOLE SOYINKA’S THE LION AND THE JEWEL AND OLA ROTIMI’S OUR HUSBAND HAS GONE MAD AGAIN

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

Africa is a continent blessed with both human and material resource. Although it is however ironical to note that all that the Africans have been blessed with are not put into proper use by the various leaders of the different African countries.

Wole Soyinka, a Nigerian born writer seems to satirizes the luxurious lifestyle of the Nigerian leaders at the expense of the economy of Nigeria and decides to portray it in the text entitle, The lion and the Jewel to ridicule the Nigerian leaders.

Ola Rotimi setouts to portray in Our Husband Has Gone Mad Again the Nigerian Political landscape and corruption. Ola Rotimi uses his text to expose societal ills in the society, gender inequality and power relations in the text.

Before contact with the whites, West African society was cohesive. Africans were their brother’s keepers. The advents of western civilization change the communal spirit in African State. After independence, when the mantle of leadership fell on Africans themselves, the statusquo was maintained.

The Use Of Satire For Change In Wole Soyinka’s The Lion And The Jewel And Ola Rotimi’s Our Husband Has Gone Mad Again

This wholesome transformation of Africa has attracted the attention of some creative literary artists among who are Wole Soyinka and Ola Rotimi who in their literary creations mirrored these canker worms which now eat deep into the fabric of our common existence as a corporate entity.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

In our society today, many people are diverting from doing the right thing. Most youths and adults are corrupt and they are addicted to bad morals which destroy the society which the live in, most at time as a result of trying to attain certain political power. Now a day’s most politicians use indirect way to make people vote for them during elections. It can also be seen in our society today that most leaders of the society collect money from people to give them what they do not merit. Due to these factors, it has call for concern which prompted the researcher to embark on this research work.

The Inclusion of Educational Administration and Supervision in Teacher Education Curriculum

THE INCLUSION OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION IN TEACHER EDUCATION CURRICULUM

The improvement of teaching and learning is the general purpose of supervision. A basic premise of administration and supervision is that a teacher’s instructional behavior affects student learning. An examination of instructional behaviors can lead to improvement in teaching and learning.

The effective school research identifies schooling practice and characteristics associated with measurable improvements in student achievement and excellence in student behavior. These “effective school practices” include elements of schooling associated with a clearly defined curriculum; focused classroom instruction and management; firm consistent discipline; close monitoring of student performance; and strong instructional leadership.

The Inclusion of Educational Administration and Supervision in Teacher Education Curriculum

To this end, the teacher education justifies and identifies the following specific purposes of administration and supervision in teacher education curriculum aims:

  • To provide proper education to students: This objective seeks to mention the fact that good education doesn’t mean education at a very high cost as is practiced in modern public schools. Rather it means the right type of education from the right type of teachers within reasonable cost. This objective also implies quantitative expansion and qualitative improvement of education.
  • To Ensure Adequate Utilization Of All Resources: For adequate realization of the various purposes of educational programme there is the need of ensuring adequate utilization of all available resources-human, material and financial.
  • To Ensure Professional Ethics And Professional Development Among Teachers: As teachers are the senior and mature human elements to accelerate the programme in time their role is highly felt in this regard. They are to be encouraged and given the facility to devise and try out innovative ideas on instruction and to participate in service education programmes. In this context, it can be visualized that educational administration should aim at developing a desire for hard work, dedication and commitment for their job among teachers.
  • To organize educational programmes for acquainting students with the art of democratic living and giving them excellent training in democratic citizenship.
  • To mobilize the community: Like general administration, educational administration seeks to maintain and improve the relations with the community. For this it should seek community support and co-operation for quantitative expansion, qualitative improvements, smooth and fair examination in the educational system.
  • To organize co-curricular activities effectively for developing talents of students and work efficiency of educational teachers.
  • To get the work done: The most important objective of administration is to get the work done effectively, efficiently and with satisfaction to the individuals and benefits to the society.
  • To prepare students for taking their places in various vocations and avenues of life.
  • To train the students in developing scientific attitude and objective outlook among them towards all aspects and activities of life.
  • To ensure qualitative improvement of education: Good education can be provided to students by bringing qualitative improvement in instruction. Regular supervision of teaching and guidance of teachers help to ensure quality teaching in schools
  • Helping the would be teachers (students teachers) to acknowledge that teachers are individuals and professionals with different needs and interests.
  • To define supervision as an art and science.
  • To consider that taken together, passion for learning and reflective practice provides modeling and the basis for individual perception and insight.
  • To maximize individual growth through reflective practice and professional dialog.
  • To provide time and support for growth and change.
  • To encourage self-initiated professional development.
  • To develop an educational environment characterized by collaboration, cooperation, and communicating yielding a supportive, non-threatening environment to foster professional growth.
  • To assert that all faculty have a professional responsibility to continually learn and improve.
  • distinguish between law and rule;
  • written and unwritten law and statutory and customary laws trace the history of education law in Nigeria;
  • distinguish between federal and state ministry of education;
  • draw the organogram of the federal and state ministry of education;
  • explain the functions of the federal and state ministry of education;
  • explain the reason why SPEB is needed;
  • explain the importance of NUC, NCCE, and NBTE in Nigeria;
  • trace the historical development of NUC in Nigeria;

In addition, supervisor has an important role to play in education. Supervision means overseeing the subordinates at work at the factory level. The supervisor is a part of the management team and he holds the designation of first line managers. He is a person who has to perform many functions which helps in achieving productivity. Therefore, supervisor can be called as the only manager who has an important role at execution level. There are certain philosophers who call supervisors as teachers. There are yet some more philosophers who call them as managers. But actually he should be called as a manager or operative manager. His primary job is to manage the teachers at operative level of management.

1. As a Planner – A supervisor has to plan the daily work schedules in the factory. At the same time he has to divide the work to various teachers according to their abilities.

2. As a Manager – It is right to say that a supervisor is a part of the management team of an enterprise. He is, in fact, an operative manager.

3. As a Guide and Leader – A factory supervisor leads the teachers by guiding them the way of perform their daily tasks. In fact, he plays a role of an inspire by telling them.

4. As a Mediator – A Supervisor is called a linking pin between management and teachers. He is the spokesperson of management as well as worker.

5. As an Inspector – An important role of supervisor is to enforce discipline in the factory. For this, the work includes checking progress of work against the time schedule, recording the work performances at regular intervals and reporting the deviations if any from subordinate. He can also frame rules and regulations which have to be followed by teachers during their work.

6. As a Counselor – A supervisor plays the role of a counselor to the worker’s problem. He has to perform this role in order to build good relations and co-operation from teachers. This can be done not only by listening to the grievances but also handling and fix your the grievances to teachers.

Therefore, we can say that effective and efficient supervision helps in improving better work performance, building good human relations, creating a congenial and co-operative environment. This can really helps in increasing productivity.

Supervisor, being the manager in a direct contact with the operatives, has got multifarious function to perform. The objective behind performance of these functions is to bring stability and soundness in the organization which can be secured through increase in profits which is an end result of higher productivity.

Visual Material Utilization and Academic Achievement in Biology

VISUAL MATERIAL UTILIZATION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BIOLOGY

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

Visual materials are instructional aids that enable the teacher to teach the students to the understanding. What a child sees brings more clarity to him. Wales (2002) is of the opinion that the use of instructional resources would make discovered facts glued firmly to the memory of students. Selection of materials which are related to the basic lesson taught by the teacher helps in depth understanding of the lesson by the students thereby arresting their interest and thus motivating them to learn. The effectiveness of any instruction therefore depends on how able the teacher is able to communicate effectively with the students. This can be achieved through the use of visual materials.

According to Balogun (2006), visual material is an integral part of teaching-learning situations that helps to bring about permanent and meaningful experiences. Moreover, they reduce verbalism on the part of teachers, motivate learners and ensure better retention and transfer of knowledge (Ibidapo and Fagbemi, 2001).

Visual Material Utilization and Academic Achievement in Biology

In a nutshell, visual materials simply refer to a wide variety of equation of knowledge, skills and morals. This includes real objects, specimens, chalkboard and models, mockups, charts, television and other projected and non-projected materials and devices, which facilitate learning.

Biology is a natural and pure science that deals with the study of life and the existence of nature and living things in it. Biology is one of the subjects taught at secondary school level. It aims at introducing students to their environments, explaining natural phenomena and other things about the environment they are living in, for the purpose of creating awareness to the students as well as enhancing their creativity and understanding.

The need for visual materials is very indispensable for teaching students at the secondary school level because students at this age (11-18) can hardly learn in abstraction in enumerating such factors. Eshiet (2004) observed that the use of visual materials have become very popular in science teaching thereby creating impact on the academic performance of students. It becomes justifiable to examine the effect of visual materials utilization on the academic achievement of students in biology.

The Theme of War in Isidore Okpewho’s The Last Duty and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Half Of A Yellow Sun

THE THEME OF WAR IN ISIDORE OKPEWHO’S THE LAST DUTY AND CHIMAMANDA NGOZI ADICHIE’S HALF OF A YELLOW SUN

Abstract

The research work examines the theme of war in Isidore Okpewho’s The Last Duty and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun, with particular reference to the Nigeria Civil War of 1967, which led to the death of millions of Nigerians, and destruction of properties. Findings have revealed that one of the greatest problems of most independent African States, is instability, and the commonest cause is tribalism and ethic rivalry. Therefore, the work brings to bear the societal disorder, conflict and psychological damages done to the Nigerian citizens during the three-year Nigeria Civil War of 1967 and present day Nigeria. The research work also seeks to portray the damages and social injustices experienced by innocent citizens as a result of war in the Nigerian society. 

The Theme of War in Isidore Okpewho’s The Last Duty and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Half Of A Yellow Sun

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study          

The federation of Nigeria, as it is known today, has never really been one homogeneous country, for its widely differing people and tribes. This obvious facts notwithstanding, enforced the former colonial master, who decided to keep the country one in order to effectively control her vital resources for their economic interest. Thus, for administration convenience, the Northern and Southern Nigeria was amalgamated in 1914.

Thereafter, the only thing this people had in common was the name of their country, since each side had different administrative set-up. This alone was an insufficient basis for true unity. Under normal circumstances, the amalgamation ought to have brought the various people together, and also provide a firm basis for the arduous work of establishing closer cultural, social, religious and linguistic ties, vital for true unity among the people. There was division, hatred, unhealthy rivalry and pronounced disparity in development.

The growth of nationalism in the society, and the subsequent emergence of political parties, were based on ethnic/tribal sentiments rather than national interest and therefore, had no unifying effect on the people against the colonial masters. Rather, it was the people themselves who were the victims of the political struggles which were supposed to be aimed at removing foreign domination.

The Theme of War in Isidore Okpewho’s The Last Duty and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Half Of A Yellow Sun

At independence, Nigeria became a federation and remained one country. Soon afterwards, the battle to consolidate the legacy of political and military dominance of a section of Nigerian over the rest of the federation began with increased intensity. It is this struggle that eventually degenerated into coup, counter coup and a bloody civil war.

The Nigerian Civil War broke out on 6th July, 1967. The war was the culmination of an uneasy peace and instability that had plagued the Nation, from independence in 1960. This situation had its genesis in the geography, history, culture and demography of Nigeria. The immediate cause of the civil war itself maybe identified as the coup and counter coup of 1966, which altered the political equation and destroyed the fragile trust existing among the major ethnic groups. From the aforementioned, the research work seeks to expose the effects and negativities of war, as seen in Isidore Okpewoh’s The Last Duty, and Chimanda Ngozi Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun.

The work brings to bear the societal disorder, conflict and psychological damage done to the Nigerian citizens (Igbos), during the three-year Nigerian Civil War of 1967.

1.2       Statement of the Problem:

The Nigerian Civil war, also known as the Nigeria-Biafra War, was a three-year bloody conflict with a death toll numbering more than one million people. Having commenced seven years after Nigeria gained independence from Britain, the war began with the secession of the southeastern region of the nation on May 30th, 1967, when it declared itself the independent Republic of Biafra. The ensuing battles and well-publicized human suffering prompted international outrage and intervention.

Carved out of the West of Africa by Britain without regard for pre-existing ethnic, cultural and linguistic divisions, Nigeria has often experienced an uncertain peace. Following decades of ethnic tension in colonial Nigeria, political instability reached a critical mass among independent Nigeria’s three dominant ethnic groups: the Hausa-Fulani in the North, Yoruba in the Southwest and Igbo in the Southeast.

On January 15th, 1966, the Igbo launched a coup –d’état under the command of major – General Johnson Thomas Umunnakwe Aguiyi Ironsi, in an attempt to save the country from what Igbo leaders feared would be political disintegration.

Shortly after the successful coup, widespread suspicion of Igbo domination was aroused in the north among the Hausa-Fulani Muslims, many of whom opposed independence from Britain. Similar suspicion of the Igbo Junta grew in the Yoruba west, prompting a joint Yoruba and Hausa-Fulani countercoup against the Igbo six months later.

Counter coup leader General – Yakubu Gowon took punitive measures against the Igbo. Further anger over the murder of prominent Hausa politicians led to the massacre of scattered Igbo populations in Northern Hausa-Fulani regions. This persecution triggered the move by Igbo separatists to form their own nation of Biafra the following year. Less than two months after Biafra declared its independence, diplomatic efforts to resolve the crises fell apart. On July 6th, 1967, the federal government in Lagos launched a full- scale invasion into Biafra.

4 Major Philosophical Capacities Nigerian Education Sets Out To Address

4 MAJOR PHILOSOPHICAL CAPACITIES NIGERIAN EDUCATION SETS OUT TO ADDRESS

Introduction

The major philosophical capacities Nigerian education sets out to address are inevitable. But, in order to make the philosophy of education work harmoniously for Nigeria’s goals, education in Nigeria has to be tailored towards self-realization, right human relations, individual and national efficiency, effective citizenship, national consciousness, national unity as well as towards social, cultural, economic, political, scientific and technological progress (NPE, 2004). To this end, the Nigerian education system is value-laden and aims at the betterment of the citizens in order that they may live a better life and contribute to the advancement of society. The role of education in the attainment of the broadcast philosophy of education.

4 major philosophical capacities Nigerian education sets out to address

1.     Free and Democratic Society

The question that readily comes to mind here is what does a free and democratic society entails? And how can this be achieved through education? A free society is a society where the citizens do not suffer restrains or undue interference. They are at liberty to achieve whatever they want to achieve that the least capable person can attain.

Just like freedom, democracy implies:

1.     That all men possess certain inalienable rights;

2.     That all humans are to be regarded equal in certain respects;

3.     Faith in human intelligence;

4.     Enhancement of individual freedom;

5.     Right to peaceful dissent (Omoteso and Aladejana, 2003)

The needed level of awareness of the citizens of the Nigerian society on the benefits of a free and democratic society as outlined above can be achieved through a virile education system that is guided by rational policy, which the society itself has evolved for its own benefit (Omatsaye, 1992).

2.     Just and Egalitarian Society

The attributes of a just and egalitarian society entails that all persons should be considered of equal importance and their opinions treated equally and seriously (Ocho, 1988). Underneath a just and egalitarian society is the principle of justice and fairness; and the principle of fairness to all is also the principle of equity. The goals of a just and egalitarian society can indeed be pursued through education. Here, education can be used to deliberately inculcate in the learner the spirit of fairness and help to recognize individual differences and needs.

3.     A great and dynamic economy

A dynamic economy is an economy that is capable of enhancing equitable income distribution by:

i)      Eliminating absolute poverty;

ii)      Participation of broadly based group in public matter affecting the citizens;

iii)     A reduction in the level of literacy;

iv)     A greater control and manipulation of the resource endowment of the nation by the internal forces.

The role of education in achieving a great and dynamic economy for Nigeria cannot be underestimated. Skilled manpower of various categories and in their diverse qualities is needed in the various economic sectors to pursue the goals of economic growth and development. It is through the process of education that these skills are developed and used to implement any meaningful economic development plan.

4 Major Philosophical Capacities Nigerian Education Sets Out To Address

4.     A united strong and self-reliant National and a Land full of bright opportunities for all Citizens.

To build a united country entails that education should able to inculcate in every Nigerian the ability contribute to the development or up-liftment of the country; every Nigerian should be his brother’s keeper irrespective of religion, ethnicity or social background; a country that will be strong in defending its territory; a country that defends the rights of her people and upholds the integrity and dignity of its citizens and provide social securities (NTI 2006).